All The Untold Secrets Of Digital Photography

It’s amazing how far digital photography has come in the last decade! When the technology first came out many photographers were very skeptical and they believed that it was going to destroy the world of photography forever and they were scared that everyone was going to be able to become a photographer and remove any kind of professionalism associated with this art form. We all know this isn’t the case and in fact digital photography has done more for the world of photography than anything else in history.What we’ve come to realize is that digital photography and print photography have been split into two different categories and that neither of the two are better than each other. Going back to that belief that many photographers had about digital photography ruining any form of professionalism, this is of course not the case. There are many professional digital photographers who do amazing work and use this piece of technology to its fullest extent.So How Do I Get Involved In Digital Photography?Well it’s so simple, all you have to do is go out and buy a digital camera and start shooting! No but seriously though, there are some things you have to know first but they are pretty basic. First of all you are going to need to get a camera with a decent lens. Fortunately most professional cameras come digitally nowadays so you shouldn’t have any problem finding one. The benefit of having a camera with a great lens is that you will have the ability to focus on different things in your shots. This is the real art of photography, being able to show something that stands out and has meaning. That meaning you will of course have to find and explain yourself through your pictures.Benefits of Digital PhotographyThere are many benefits of digital photography but perhaps the most obvious is that you will have the ability to see what you have taken and choose whether or not it is worth keeping or discarding. The second benefit is that you can also upload your pictures onto your computer so you can edit and change them around. There are lots of different pieces of photo editing software out there that allow you to do amazing things.If you are just deciding to start digital photography now, then you have started at the right time as we will only start to see more and more advancements in this form of technology in the future which of course we will have the privilege of first trying and testing. Good luck!

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Differences Between Formal and Informal Social Control

Social control can be considered as an important aspect of an individual’s socialization process. There are some universal norms or rules which should be followed by members of all societies. Any deviation from these norms may result in a minimum level of punishment for ensuring the social order. It refers to the processes of regulation of an individual or group behavior in a society, which encourages conformity and obedience. It may include social or political mechanisms. Its two forms are formal and informal controls.Formal Social Control:
Formal social control is implemented by authorized agents including police officers, employers, military officers, and others. It is carried out as a last option at some places when the desired behavior is not possible through informal social control. The situations and severity where formal control is practiced varies with countries.This is practiced through law as statutes, rules, and regulations against deviant social behavior. For example, certain laws like prohibition of murder can be directed at all members of a society. Fishing and hunting regulations are made for certain groups. Corporate laws are laid for governing the behavior of social institutions. Formal control is conducted by government and organizations through law enforcement mechanisms. It can also be conducted through some formal sanctions including fines and imprisonment. Processes of formal control in democratic societies are determined and designed through legislation by elected representatives.Courts or judges, military officers, police officers, school systems or teachers, and government agencies or bureaucrats, enforce formal control.Informal Social Control:
It is exercised by a society without stating any rules or laws. It is expressed through norms and customs. Social control is performed by informal agents on their own in an unofficial capacity. Traditional societies mostly embed informal social control culture to establish social order.Shame, sarcasm, criticism, ridicule and disapproval are some of the informal sanctions. Social discrimination and exclusion are included in informal control at extreme deviant cases. Self-identity, self-worth and self-esteem are affected in informal control through loss of group approval or membership. The severity and nature of informal control mechanisms differ from varied individuals, groups, and societies.Informal is effective in small group settings including friends, family, neighborhood, work group and others. However, in some large and complex societies, informal social control and disapproval is ignored easily. At such situations, it is necessary to follow the formal one.Some of the differences of formal and informal social control are:•Formal social control includes written, formalized and codified statements in laws, rules, and regulations. Whereas informal control does not contain any written rules.•Formal control agencies are authorized ones created by government and informal control agencies are created by social networks and organizations but not by government.•Formal control is much effective and stronger than informal social control. Any situations which cannot be handled by informal control are subjected to formal one.•Formal control is effective for even large groups of population but informal control is effective only for a small group of people.Social control, formal or informal, thus helps in regulation of society. The study of social control includes disciplines of sociology, anthropology, psychology, law and political science.

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Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) – Corporate Governance Models

Corporate governance modelsThere are a number of variations of the CSR model in practice across the globe. If we can imagine a linear scale moving from left to right, Stakeholder (excluding shareholders) interests on the far left to Shareholder Interests on the far right it becomes easier to understand the different models. The difference is the extent to which these two, often competing, interests are favored.Lefties and neo-consThis Left-Right divide is applicable in the political and philosophical context as well. The ideals of CSR have been considered “left leaning”, “leftie” or Liberal in its philosophy from the very beginning. Many Conservatives (Right), “neo-cons” are now coming to the understand that the best interests of shareholders are aligned with the best interests of the corporation and that is sustainability. If the corporation and the planet doesn’t survive then there is no point in generating profits.Not-for-profit and For Profit organisations definedIt is necessary to define just what is a “For Profit” organisation. It is a business or commercial enterprises whose sole reason for being is to generate profit. A “Not-For-Profit” (NPO) organisation is one whose raison d’etre is some higher purpose such as famine relief, religious mission or the dissemination of education. They are often referred to as Nonprofit organisations however this is strictly not correct. NPOs will often strive to make a profit to fund their “charitable” works. The essential difference is that in the NPO the profit is retained within the organisation whereas the For-profit organisations “intention” is to distribute its profits to its shareholders. A quick wrap-up is, a NPO exists for its works whereas a For-Profit exists for its profits.The “For-Profit” motiveIt has been the maxim of corporations, in less enlightened times, that “the end justifies the means”. Plunder and pollute, exploit the workers and the environment if it makes a profit its OK. This is no longer acceptable nor tolerable in modern Western commerce. A profit without due reference to other stakeholders is not a sustainable ethos. CSR is driving the inversion to “the means justifies the ends”. What you did making the profit is more important than the profit.Cultural ImperativesThere is a correlation between the propensity towards shareholder bias and culture. For example, the Anglo-American (Anglosphere) corporations tend towards the shareholder bias (right) whilst in Western Europe and Japan corporations tend towards stakeholder bias (left). The movement is however inexorably, although seemingly with glacier like speed, towards the left.ConclusionThere are a number of variations of the CSR model in practice across the globe. The difference is the extent to which Stakeholder and Shareholder interests are recognized and favored. These competing interests can be described as a Left-Right divide. The ideals of CSR have been considered “left leaning”, “leftie” or Liberal in its philosophy. The maxim that “the ends justifies the means” is being diluted in the corporate world and is moving towards a belief that If the corporation and the planet doesn’t survive then there is no point in generating profits.

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